"Diabetes is not a phrase but a lifestyle" - endocrinologists repeat this phrase. Adherence to treatment options is one of the fundamentals of diabetes treatment that enables the patient to live a full life.
Diabetes diet is a leading part of treatment. In this disease there is a lack of insulin - a special hormone in the pancreas that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates. The main symptom of diabetes is an increase in blood sugar, but the metabolism of carbohydrates is not isolated but leads to an imbalance in the metabolism of proteins and fats.
Diabetes diets are not just about limiting carbs. The patient's diet also includes those products that promote the normal functioning of other organs and systems, which usually affect this endocrine disease. So, for example, with concomitant obesity, which happens quite often, the menu contains as many vegetables as possible that contain a small amount of calories, but give a feeling of fullness: cucumbers, tomatoes, spinach, beans, cabbage, lettuce. Bearing in mind that in many cases diabetes also affects the liver, extracts (meat and fish broths) are limited in the diet, but they necessarily contain cottage cheese, soy and oatmeal, which have a positive effect on liver function. And damage to the cardiovascular system indicates a restriction of salt in the diet for patients with diabetes.
Two existing types of diabetes require different diets. In type 1 diabetes, diet is not so important - the focus of treatment is on the administration of insulin, which makes the diet of such patients less restrictive. However, in type 2 diabetes, diet is paramount - in the early stages of the disease, in many cases, blood sugar levels can only be controlled by following medical dietary advice without prescribing blood glucose.
But the diet of any type of diabetes has general principles, but following it makes it possible to balance the metabolism of carbohydrates to some extent.
Diabetes Diet: Principles
- Meals are frequent, regular, at the same time - at least 4 times a day.
- Equal distribution of caloric content and nutritional value of the diet after main meals.
- Variety, including a wide range of products recommended for diabetics.
- Eating xylitol or sorbitol to sweeten food.
- Calorie control of daily diet with special tables.
- Fluid restriction to 1200 ml, incl. mt first courses.
- Includes foods rich in vitamins in foods: rosehip broth, yeast, etc.
- Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels with dietary adjustment, depending on the results obtained.
type 2 diabetes
All therapeutic diets in modern medicine are usually designated by numbers for ease of use. In the case of diabetes, it is a classic diet with number 9 - otherwise they say "table number 9".
What is the number 9 diet for diabetes?
- bread (with an emphasis on rye bread) 200-300 g;
- vegetable broth soup;
- boiled or steamed meat and poultry;
- cooked or steamed fish;
- vegetables: white or cauliflower, lettuce, bushes, cucumbers, radishes, beets, carrots, potatoes;
- eggs - 2 pieces a day;
- unsweetened fruits and berries: Antonov apples, oranges, lemons, moonberries, cranberries, redberries.
- kefir or yoghurt - 200-400 ml per day;
- cottage cheese up to 200 mg daily;
- mild sauces, including milk sauces;
- snacks: vinaigrette, salad, jellyfish;
- beverages: tomato juice, tea with milk, unsweetened juices, compost without sugar;
- butter and vegetable oil - 40g per day.
- Cereals, legumes and pasta are consumed to a limited extent, but reduce bread consumption;
- soups based on sick fish or broth - not more than 2 times a week;
- diabetes and diabetic diabetes - as recommended by your doctor;
- milk - as recommended by your doctor;
- cheese, cream, sour cream - limited;
- Chocolate, confectionery, cakes, pastries, honey, jam and the like;
- pork and lamb fat; Spicy, salty and smoky dishes:
- sweet fruits: bananas, raisins, grapes;
- alcohol in any form.
Table 9 is the diet of diabetics during the stabilization of the disease. If a patient's condition worsens for some reason, the diet will be restricted. In all cases, only a doctor can give definitive dietary advice for type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes Diet
In type 1 diabetes, diet is determined by insulin administration and therefore the same advice is usually given to patients with type 2 diabetes who require insulin injections.
In terms of its composition, such a menu is not much different from the type 2 diabetes diet, but sugar is completely excluded. Despite this ban, patients receiving insulin are strongly advised to always carry sugar or sweets, which may be required if there is a risk of hypoglycaemia - a condition with low blood sugar, where a serious condition is possible - coma.
Modern blood glucose meters and carbohydrate tablets enable these patients to live more nutritious lifestyles. The existing concept - the unit of bread (XE), which is equivalent to 12 g of carbohydrates - allows diabetic patients who receive insulin to eat regularly even foods that are not recommended or eat more carbohydrates. However, the patient needs to have their blood sugar measured before each meal and, based on the expected menu, given in XE, inject the required amount of short-acting insulin. A special table is used to calculate bread units.
All of the above does not mean that a patient with type 1 diabetes can eat everything and in any amount: one meal should not have more than 7-8 XE. For overweight patients, these restrictions are even stricter.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include high protein content. This requirement is particularly important for patients with infectious complications and symptoms of erectile dysfunction.
Prescribing a detailed diet, alternating meals and one hour of insulin should only be done by your treating physician.
Weight Loss Diet Diabetes
Patients with diabetes, especially type 2, are often overweight. Therefore, the question of limiting the calorie content of the diet for such patients may be particularly important. However, none of the "rapid" monopolies should be used in this case. Such a ban is explained by the high risk of developing a severe hypoglycaemic condition (significant decrease in blood glucose) if the balance of the diet is disturbed and in patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 moderate diabetes it is almost inevitable.
If you are overweight, dieting for weight loss in diabetes involves a correction of standard treatment no. 9 with reduced content of refined carbohydrates (sugar) and restriction of fat. However, such decisions should not be made without the advice of a physician: only together with a physician will the patient be able to formulate a safe, low-calorie diet.